Rare dolphin-whale hybrid spotted near Hawaii

Researchers found the first known hybrid between a rough-toothed dolphin and a melon-headed whale near Kauai, Hawaii.

(CNN)Scientists from the Cascadia Research Collective have discovered a rare dolphin-whale hybrid off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii, according to a report published last week.

The marine mammal monitoring program, funded by the US Navy, first spotted the animal in August 2017. The team tagged various species, including commonly seen rough-toothed dolphins and rarer melon-headed whales.

However, researchers soon noticed that one tagged animal that looked a little odd. Although it had a typical melon-headed whale’s dorsal fin shape and dorsal cape, it was also blotchy in pigmentation and had a sloping forehead, more reminiscent of a rough-toothed dolphin.

A genetic sample soon confirmed their suspicions: it was a hybrid of the two species, the first to ever be found.

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Rough-toothed dolphins.

The cross-species hybridization may seem bizarre, but is made possible by the fact that melon-headed whales aren’t actually whales. They belong to the Delphinidae family, otherwise known as oceanic dolphins, which also includes orcas and two species of pilot whales.

It also isn’t the first discovery of hybridization in the family — there have also been cases of bottlenose dolphin/false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) hybrids, known as Wolphins, and common/bottlenose dolphin hybrids.

This is the first confirmed hybrid between rough-toothed dolphins and melon-headed whales. However, though it’s an exciting discovery, researchers point out it is not, as commonly thought, a new species.

“While hybridization can at times lead to new species, most of the time this does not happen,” Cascadia researcher Robin Baird told CNN, pointing that there was only a single hybrid found this time.

Some hybrid animals, such as the mule — a hybrid of a male donkey and female horse — are mostly sterile and therefore cannot propagate easily.

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Melon-headed whales.

The dolphin-whale hybridization is especially surprising in this region, as a sighting of melon-headed whales had never before been confirmed near the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) navy base.

The hybrid was only traveling with one companion — a melon-headed whale. This, too was unusual, given that melon-headed whales typically travel in groups of 200-300. The solitary pair were “found associating with rough-toothed dolphins,” the report read.

The odd pair and their closeness to the other dolphins have led the researchers to speculate that the accompanying melon-headed whale is the hybrid’s mother.

The research team will return to Kauai next week, hoping to confirm their theory.

“If we were lucky enough to find the pair again, we would try to get a biopsy sample of the accompanying melon-headed whale, to see whether it might be the mother of the hybrid, as well as get underwater images of the hybrid to better assess morphological differences from the parent species,” said Baird.

The US Navy is required to monitor these species as part of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act.

They do so through the Cascadia Research Collective, which conducts photo identification, genetic analyzes, and acoustic monitoring to determine the abundance of odontocetes, also known as toothed whales.

source: https://edition.cnn.com/2018/07/30/us/dolphin-whale-hybrid-intl/index.html

 

 

Punishment- For all animal trainers

Operant conditioning- Punishment

 

Many trainers believe punishment is the answer!!

Negative effect of punishment, weather is for dolphins, sea lions, dogs or human.

 

The side effects of punishment 

Punishment differs from negative reinforcement in that it aims to decrease the likelihood of the response occurring. Punishment is the introduction of an unpleasant stimuli such as a hit or yell, whereas negative reinforcement is taking away the unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of the response occurring.

Potential punishers are any consequences which might lead to a decrease in the response. Some consequences may be punishing for some people, but not others.

Side-effects of punishment include aggression, frustration, avoidance learning, escape learning and learned helplessness. The punishment may not decrease the behaviour at all but teach the child to be aggressive or avoid the punishes. Sometimes the punishment ends up being positive reinforcement or only serves to satisfy the frustration of the punisher.

Effective punishment should address the subject’s actions and not the subject’s character. It should be related to the undesirable behaviour and it should consist of penalties or response cost (the removal of a reinforcer) rather than psychological or physical pain.

 

 

Alison.com

The shocking truth about Charles Darwin

Why does Charles Darwin eclipse Alfred Russel Wallace?

 

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He jointly came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, corresponded with the great and good of society, and was given the highest honour possible from a British monarch.

 

His correspondents included David Lloyd George, William Gladstone, Rudyard Kipling, George Bernard Shaw and Arthur Conan Doyle.

And on his death 100 years ago, obituaries were effusive in their praise, calling him the last of the great Victorians.

You would be forgiven for the name Charles Darwin popping into your head – but you would be wrong.

The theory of evolution by natural selection was published jointly between Darwin and Monmouthshire-born Alfred Russel Wallace, whose interest in natural history developed when he moved to Neath and worked as a land surveyor with his brother.

But while today Darwin is a household name synonymous with the theory, Wallace struggles to gain anywhere near the recognition of his friend.

This is illustrated by an appeal this year to raise funds for a life-sized bronze statue to honour Wallace – it only reached half of its £50,000 target.

 

Wallace expert Dr George Beccaloni, who is a curator at the Natural History Museum where the statue would stand, said: “We have enough money to pay for a torso and arms at the moment.

“There are hundreds of Darwin statues and busts but there’s not even a bust of Wallace.

“There’s a side-profile roundel on the wall at Westminster Abbey – not far from Darwin’s grave. There’s not a lot else.”

Interestingly, Wallace was not overlooked during his lifetime and was awarded the Order of Merit, the highest honour that could be given by the British monarch to a civilian.

His correspondents included some of the most significant politicians in recent British history, and celebrated authors and poets.

“He was extremely famous and possibly the most famous scientist and one of the most famous people in the world when he died (in 1913),” said Dr Beccaloni.

‘Grabbed the imagination’

“There were very long, glowing obituaries in all the world’s papers from Bombay to Boston saying he was the last of the great Victorians.

“One of the papers said only a great ruler would have had the sort of level of obituary recognition as Wallace.”

He said Darwin was more famous but died many years before Wallace leaving Wallace to go on and become “the most famous living biologist in Britain”.

So, where did it go wrong for Wallace’s reputation?

 

Prof Jim Costa, director of a biological research station in North Carolina, USA and an expert on both men, says part of the problem appears to be that Wallace failed to promote his role in formulating the theory as effectively as Darwin.

While they had jointly published the theory of evolution by natural selection in a paper in August 1858, it was Darwin’s On the Origin of Species the very next year that truly grabbed the public’s imagination.

Even one of Wallace’s own books appeared to pass on the credit for the discovery. It was called ‘Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of Its Applications’!

Prof Costa said another factor was what became known as the “eclipse of Darwinism”, when natural selection fell out of favour in the late 19th Century.

By the time it was revived in the 1930s, neither man was around and the world was a very different place.

“I think when this idea was resurrected in 1930 there was a new generation and they very much had Darwin on their minds,” said Prof Costa.

 

“Wallace I think had a role in this – his book ‘Darwinism’ for example. He tended to downplay his role in public forums and that just didn’t serve him well.

“When it [natural selection] was resurrected, it was always associated with Darwin.”

He said when evolutionary biology really took off in the 1940s, the history of the discovery had been largely forgotten.

A Darwin “industry” developed and, said Prof Costa, it viewed Darwin as the “great visionary”.

While little has changed since in terms of public acclaim, there are signs that Wallace’s work is gaining more recognition in certain circles.

A series of events are being held around the world to commemorate the centenary of Wallace’s death this year under the Wallace100 banner.

Renewed efforts

These include an exhibition in Swansea, a lecture in Berlin and a two-day conference in Malaysia.

Comedian Bill Bailey recently unveiled a restored portrait of Wallace at the Natural History Museum and has also filmed a two-part documentary for the BBC about Wallace.

Thousands of Wallace’s letters have been put online for the first time, including correspondence with Darwin about evolution by natural selection.

There is even hope for the statue with renewed efforts being made to raise the rest of the money by August.

But gaining the same level of acclaim as Darwin is another matter.

“I think that in the popular imagination, it would be very, very difficult. It’s indelibly Darwin and monkeys,” said Prof Costa.

“I don’t think there’s much we can do about that but I do think he will emerge from relative eclipse by Darwin, certainly in the broad academic world and the world of naturalists.

“He contributed so much.”

 

 

 

“THIS CAN HELP YOU ADAPT FASTER AND HELP YOU TO RESPOND TO ALL EVENTUALITIES, EXPECTED AND UNEXPECTED, WHEN TRAINING”

If you really want to succeed and keep ahead of everyone else, you will need to have stamina and to boost this, whilst also increasing your energy and recovery, try the CARBO-PROTEIN DRINK conveniently throughout your day.

For those who are already enjoying the benefit of CARBO-PROTEIN DRINK, here is a new way to prepare it…mix the plain flavour protein with any fruit of your choice.

 

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Animal Training- Behaviour Stages

Based on positive reinforcement, operant conditioning

Many trainers when they are training a new behaviour they believe that once the basics steps of a behaviour is thought the it’s completed or finished. This is contradictory as we clearly know that is more difficult to keep a behaviour continuously on shape than training it for first time.

When training animals for public interaction your behaviour must be at criteria in order to develop a quality service.

If you were a guest and you were having a unique experience such as an interaction with these animals. Which of these images you would you like to take with you?

This is the reason why in this case trainers and video department must work together and synchronised, so others could take with them the best memory ever!!!

 

 

For animal trainers and active people drink!!

Some of you have asked us if there are other alternative proteins…yes of course, there are always other choices and one of them is WHEY PROTEIN.

This is an isolated protein. What does it mean?

The highest part of the protein is isolated from the other part of the milk

We have tried whey protein on many different occasions and it’s also an excellent choice, apart from its yummy variety of flavours it is very creamy and is very popular

It all comes down to taste and preferences!!

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Link:

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-Isolate-Proteins-Supplement/dp/B00LU0TECE/ref=sr_1_9?crid=2BULQRG9SDSYN&keywords=my+protein+whey+isolate+protein&qid=1558735075&s=gateway&sprefix=isolate+whey+protein+my+protein%2Caps%2C189&sr=8-9

 

 

MAXIMISE YOUR PRODUCTIVITY WITH LIVE SUPPORT SUPPLEMENTS

Trainers’ Fitness Advice

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FUEL BOOSTING PROTEIN BALL!!!

  • Money saving
  • Time saving
  • Enhance work productivity

Some people believe that if they don’t eat, they will lose weight.

But your body is smarter than you think…It realises it does not have regular energy input, so it saves energy and reduces the body’s motor, or metabolism.

To avoid this slow down, when perhaps you might miss a meal, you can still get your protein and carbohydrate needed in a healthy way, in a very simple form, that is not a sweet or junk food.

I use these Protein Balls …

 

LINK:

https://www.myprotein.com/sports-nutrition/myprotein-vegan-protein-ball-sample/11883354.html

Via dolphin mentoring

After so many years training dolphins, some time ago during a training session, I stood up and looked around thought if only I could create a program to make a session easier, for the animals and for the trainers.

I thought that showing people how I used Operant Condition (positive reinforcement) would be a good opportunity to create a program much easier to understand and less complicated for all trainers. This would also ensure fair treatment of the animals by less experienced trainers, who could then use positive training techniques to achieve quicker results.

I realised that the process of learning so many techniques could be daunting for students, but with my help in explaining how they can build, using small steps at time, they will be successful. Many students don’t make it, due lack of patience, frustration, uncertainty, but with my mentoring program they will be more relaxed and be able to glide through my trainer’s training process.

As we already know the fittest, strongest animal is the one leading!!

A new trainer’s program would not be complete without noting the importance of them having a healthy life style to ensure they were fit enough to keep up with their demanding career.

My personal trainer has linked with Via Dolphin and has devised dietary information to assist trainers in getting all the nutrients they need, workout advise for optimum results, so they can keep healthy and strong and even suggested supplements that can assist with a healthy balanced diet.

We have launched a Trainers Fitness program to ease a trainers hectic daily life style.

 

For more information visit our FaceBook page @

https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

‘Leave Seals Be This Pupping Season:’ The Marine Mammal Centre Reminds Visitors

It’s that special time of year again in Northern California – seal pupping season!

As more and more seal mothers give birth to pups on local beaches, the Marine Mammal Center is about to enter its busiest rescue season of the year. Currently, more than 150 patients are at their Sausalito hospital and that number is growing every day. “The Center wants to remind locals and visitors alike that a great wildlife

viewing experience starts with giving these animals the safe distance to be wild and what they should do if an animal appears to be in distress,” a spokesperson for MMC said.

Last year, The Marine Mammal Center responded to 86 seals, sea lions and sea otters that had to be rescued due to negative human interaction across the Center’s response range. They want everyone to safely observe and “please save the SEAL-FIE for later.”

The marine mammal centre