The shocking truth about Charles Darwin

Why does Charles Darwin eclipse Alfred Russel Wallace?

 

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He jointly came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, corresponded with the great and good of society, and was given the highest honour possible from a British monarch.

 

His correspondents included David Lloyd George, William Gladstone, Rudyard Kipling, George Bernard Shaw and Arthur Conan Doyle.

And on his death 100 years ago, obituaries were effusive in their praise, calling him the last of the great Victorians.

You would be forgiven for the name Charles Darwin popping into your head – but you would be wrong.

The theory of evolution by natural selection was published jointly between Darwin and Monmouthshire-born Alfred Russel Wallace, whose interest in natural history developed when he moved to Neath and worked as a land surveyor with his brother.

But while today Darwin is a household name synonymous with the theory, Wallace struggles to gain anywhere near the recognition of his friend.

This is illustrated by an appeal this year to raise funds for a life-sized bronze statue to honour Wallace – it only reached half of its £50,000 target.

 

Wallace expert Dr George Beccaloni, who is a curator at the Natural History Museum where the statue would stand, said: “We have enough money to pay for a torso and arms at the moment.

“There are hundreds of Darwin statues and busts but there’s not even a bust of Wallace.

“There’s a side-profile roundel on the wall at Westminster Abbey – not far from Darwin’s grave. There’s not a lot else.”

Interestingly, Wallace was not overlooked during his lifetime and was awarded the Order of Merit, the highest honour that could be given by the British monarch to a civilian.

His correspondents included some of the most significant politicians in recent British history, and celebrated authors and poets.

“He was extremely famous and possibly the most famous scientist and one of the most famous people in the world when he died (in 1913),” said Dr Beccaloni.

‘Grabbed the imagination’

“There were very long, glowing obituaries in all the world’s papers from Bombay to Boston saying he was the last of the great Victorians.

“One of the papers said only a great ruler would have had the sort of level of obituary recognition as Wallace.”

He said Darwin was more famous but died many years before Wallace leaving Wallace to go on and become “the most famous living biologist in Britain”.

So, where did it go wrong for Wallace’s reputation?

 

Prof Jim Costa, director of a biological research station in North Carolina, USA and an expert on both men, says part of the problem appears to be that Wallace failed to promote his role in formulating the theory as effectively as Darwin.

While they had jointly published the theory of evolution by natural selection in a paper in August 1858, it was Darwin’s On the Origin of Species the very next year that truly grabbed the public’s imagination.

Even one of Wallace’s own books appeared to pass on the credit for the discovery. It was called ‘Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of Its Applications’!

Prof Costa said another factor was what became known as the “eclipse of Darwinism”, when natural selection fell out of favour in the late 19th Century.

By the time it was revived in the 1930s, neither man was around and the world was a very different place.

“I think when this idea was resurrected in 1930 there was a new generation and they very much had Darwin on their minds,” said Prof Costa.

 

“Wallace I think had a role in this – his book ‘Darwinism’ for example. He tended to downplay his role in public forums and that just didn’t serve him well.

“When it [natural selection] was resurrected, it was always associated with Darwin.”

He said when evolutionary biology really took off in the 1940s, the history of the discovery had been largely forgotten.

A Darwin “industry” developed and, said Prof Costa, it viewed Darwin as the “great visionary”.

While little has changed since in terms of public acclaim, there are signs that Wallace’s work is gaining more recognition in certain circles.

A series of events are being held around the world to commemorate the centenary of Wallace’s death this year under the Wallace100 banner.

Renewed efforts

These include an exhibition in Swansea, a lecture in Berlin and a two-day conference in Malaysia.

Comedian Bill Bailey recently unveiled a restored portrait of Wallace at the Natural History Museum and has also filmed a two-part documentary for the BBC about Wallace.

Thousands of Wallace’s letters have been put online for the first time, including correspondence with Darwin about evolution by natural selection.

There is even hope for the statue with renewed efforts being made to raise the rest of the money by August.

But gaining the same level of acclaim as Darwin is another matter.

“I think that in the popular imagination, it would be very, very difficult. It’s indelibly Darwin and monkeys,” said Prof Costa.

“I don’t think there’s much we can do about that but I do think he will emerge from relative eclipse by Darwin, certainly in the broad academic world and the world of naturalists.

“He contributed so much.”

 

 

 

Animal Training- Behaviour Stages

Based on positive reinforcement, operant conditioning

Many trainers when they are training a new behaviour they believe that once the basics steps of a behaviour is thought the it’s completed or finished. This is contradictory as we clearly know that is more difficult to keep a behaviour continuously on shape than training it for first time.

When training animals for public interaction your behaviour must be at criteria in order to develop a quality service.

If you were a guest and you were having a unique experience such as an interaction with these animals. Which of these images you would you like to take with you?

This is the reason why in this case trainers and video department must work together and synchronised, so others could take with them the best memory ever!!!

 

 

Via dolphin mentoring

After so many years training dolphins, some time ago during a training session, I stood up and looked around thought if only I could create a program to make a session easier, for the animals and for the trainers.

I thought that showing people how I used Operant Condition (positive reinforcement) would be a good opportunity to create a program much easier to understand and less complicated for all trainers. This would also ensure fair treatment of the animals by less experienced trainers, who could then use positive training techniques to achieve quicker results.

I realised that the process of learning so many techniques could be daunting for students, but with my help in explaining how they can build, using small steps at time, they will be successful. Many students don’t make it, due lack of patience, frustration, uncertainty, but with my mentoring program they will be more relaxed and be able to glide through my trainer’s training process.

As we already know the fittest, strongest animal is the one leading!!

A new trainer’s program would not be complete without noting the importance of them having a healthy life style to ensure they were fit enough to keep up with their demanding career.

My personal trainer has linked with Via Dolphin and has devised dietary information to assist trainers in getting all the nutrients they need, workout advise for optimum results, so they can keep healthy and strong and even suggested supplements that can assist with a healthy balanced diet.

We have launched a Trainers Fitness program to ease a trainers hectic daily life style.

 

For more information visit our FaceBook page @

https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

Soy Protein Powder

Nutritional values of soy

Soybeans are low in saturated fat, high in protein calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine and vitamin C, also a good source of fibre. There are many products made of soybeans soy such as soy milk and tofu. Young, green soybeans can be eaten out as an appetiser also be used in salads, stir-fries, and soups. It is even used in cosmetic products because there are claims that it reduces the appearance of ageing.

Isolated soy powder, as the name suggests, isolates the highest part of the soy protein, providing a higher quality source of protein. The soy powder which I use is 90% protein, being one of the highest sources of protein available. My personal trainer has used soy isolate for over twenty years and believes that it does indeed aid the skin and hair, improving the fight against the signs of ageing.

I am sharing my preference for this product because it has helped me and others, when working in busy environments, where sitting down to eat a meal, is difficult. I mix this soy for my protein source and add either porridge oats or a maltodextrin powder for my carbohydrate source. The resulting drink is easy to drink on the go, when you are busy, it gives you the right amount of protein and carbohydrates, whilst also being low calorie and helping you keep your waist small.

I use around 25g each of both soy and maltodextrin but the amount you can use will depend on your size and work-load etc. I will be advising in more detail through my other pages, what suitable diets for trainers and those with busy jobs.

I buy this Soy Isolate 90% product from My protein through Amazon.

Product Overview

Our Soy Protein Isolate delivers an impressive 27g of protein per serving, and contains 90% protein content.

What is Soy Protein Isolate?

Soy protein isolate is protein that’s sourced directly from soybeans – this means that it’s completely free from animal products, unlike whey protein or casein, making it a great choice for vegetarians, vegans, and anyone with lactose intolerance.

  • Key Benefits
    • 27g of protein per serving
    • Suitable for vegetarians and vegans
    • Lactose-free and ingredients containing gluten
    • Zero fat and zero sugar
    • Available in four indulgent flavours
  • Why Choose?
  1. Protein contributes to the growth and maintenance of muscle mass.
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, milk and egg.

Chocolate Smooth Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (89%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Cocoa Powder, Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Strawberry Cream Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Colour (Beetroot Red), Sweetener (Sucrose)

Unflavoured: Soy Protein Isolate (100%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin)

Vanilla Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Matcha: Soy Protein Isolate (93%), Artificial Flavouring (Sweeteners (Sucrose), Artificial Flavouring Substances), Green Tea Extract (4%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ¼ scoops (30g)

Servings Per Container – 33 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1642 kJ/387 kcal 493 kJ/116 kcal 6%
Fat 0.5 g 0.2 g 0%
  of which saturates 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 5 g 1.5 g 1%
  of which sugars 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Protein 90 g 27 g 54%
Salt 3.8 g 1.1 g 18%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour, the nutritional values may vary.

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-Unflavoured-Protein-Supplement/dp/B00L7X970S/ref=sr_1_12?keywords=my+protein+soy+powder&qid=1556455422&s=gateway&sr=8-12

 

 

 

Maltodextrin

In a healthy well-balanced diet, we need carbohydrates to give us energy, to help recover from normal muscle function, as well as giving us an energy boost before any hard work or work-out. To consume carbs, we may have to prepare and cook meals and we may not have as trainers, enough time to cook or even eat these meals throughout our busty days. I use Maltodextrin mixed with Soy Isolate Powder which then creates a quick cost-effective easy meal to have on the go. These drinks have given me a very good way of controlling my calorie intake when needing to lose weight, energy and recovery when working out

I use Maltodextrin 100% from My protein which I purchase through Amazon.

Product Overview

  • Key Benefits
    • Great source of energy
    • Fuel for your workout
    • Recovery post-workout
    • Vegan, vegetarian, gluten-free
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, soy, milk and egg.

Unflavoured: Maltodextrin (100%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ½ large scoops (50g)

Servings Per Container – 20 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1700 kJ/400 kcal 850 kJ/200 kcal 10%
Fat 0 g 0 g 0%
  of which saturates 0 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 100 g 50 g 19%
  of which sugars  0g 0 g 0%
Protein 0 g 0 g 0%
Salt <0.01 g <0.01 g 0%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour the nutritional values may vary.

Follow the link below

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-MYP16-Maltodextrin-Supplement/dp/B00BSOC5NM/ref=sr_1_5?crid=3FZASUBVQ0F6B&keywords=myprotein+maltodextrin&qid=1556456067&s=gateway&sprefix=maltodextrin+myprotein%2Caps%2C163&sr=8-5

 

If you have a busy job and need help with how to eat healthily, advice on what to eat to lose weight, to stay energised and the best time to eat….read on!

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Have you ever wondered how fit a Dolphin Trainer needs to be and how a healthy lifestyle can help them?

Many trainers struggle because of lack a of time, even for any social life

Here you can learn about healthy diets that they can fit into their busy day, what supplements they can add to their diets and smart ways to fit in meals, whilst at work with little breaks.

Naturally, these diets and fitness tips can be used by anyone who has a busy lifestyle or a demanding job that does not allow you to have many breaks to eat meals.

As a mentor, using my years of experience to guide and teach new trainers, one of the most difficult and challenging problems trainers have is finding time to eat. I remember I was always very busy and being naturally hyperactive, I always had to eat very quickly. Other trainers used to regularly ask how I could have so much energy and asked if I took any vitamin supplements.

I did take a multi-vitamin supplement and also high protein powders and oats in a quick drink. I would prepare drinks the night before and carry them to work.

Here I can expand on the types of food that are both convenient and high in protein, energy and healthy.

I have further developed this eating regime with the help of my personal trainer and nutritional advisor, who helped me some years ago to create a healthy meal and

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training program, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. I always trained at a gym and ate healthy foods, but he was able to help me increase my fitness level whilst burning fat, with a healthy diet, not just reverting to traditional diets for fat lost.

What you will find out is;

  1. The most effective way to lose fat.
  2. What to eat and how to prepare simple drinks and meals to eat on the go..
  3. When to eat to maximise weight loss and recovery..
  4. Diets that are creative and calorie controlled.
  5. Workouts that are easy to fit into your busy lifestyles..
  6. The potential for bespoke advise tailored to your specific requirements.

 

As I mentioned my personal trainer has helped me develop these simple tips, but if you are interested in finding out more or if you need advice more tailored to you specifically, you can follow the link below.

 

Just contact us @  viadolphin@hotmail.co.uk

 

If you are ready to try our Drinks on the Go, check Animal Trainer healthy program support on our shopping page!!

 

If you would like to take a look at our Facebook mentoring page, with just a click you will be there!!

Here: https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

 

 

A Trainers love lasts forever

When 10 years has passed and you see with your own eyes, the proof of a unique bond between an animal and a human.

I was so flabbergasted it took my breath away and brought tears to my eyes.

Misty… the closest animal to me and the smarted dolphin I have ever trained, proved to me once again, what a special bond we had after 10 years without interacting with each other.

When I remember how we found her its breaks my heart!

She was just a baby, floating lifeless, like a piece of drift-wood in the open ocean, alone and close to dying, when we came to her rescue.

It was April the 4th 2005, she was a very sick, cast away from her family, very dehydrated body, with severe infections plus around six ulcers in her stomach, which I later observed through our endoscope camera.

After nursing her back to health, she soon became the most intelligent and responsive animal and after sleeping many nights by her side on the trainer’s platform, we developed a bond that was evident in her reaction to me, whenever we were together.

Fast forward now to two weeks ago, on a visit to see all my friends at Dolphin Cove Jamaica Ocho Rios, my one thought was how was Misty. She was 16 years old whilst I was there, so I wanted to see my young friend!  I was asked if I wanted to help feed her and naturally, with such a kind offer from the trainers who by now had heard of our history, I could not miss the chance to see Misty.

I gave her a tactile signal, which I used to give her always when we used to play, only she and I knew about it, it was our little secret… I was speechless when she responded positive and with fluency to my signal after 10 years…my heart was bursting with happiness, after she showed me that she remembered my unique signal and touch. I spent a short while with her and could tell by other unique signals and touches that she remembered each one perfectly.

It was an amazing experience and confirms my belief that not only are these beautiful animals so intelligent, but that a special bond can exist between a trainer with an honest kind heart, putting their love into how they treat their animal and an animal respecting that treatment. Often, Misty offered to perform without constant positive reinforcement, because she trusted me to reward fully at the end of the program, this was also somewhat unique to Misty and I, but it also demonstrates what can happen, if you treat the animals with love and respect.

A big thank you to you guys at Ocho Rios for making this experience possible, it will remain in my heart, as will Misty, forever.

 

Endocrine disruptions found in bottle nose dolphins

Bottlenose dolphins are being exposed to chemical compounds added to many common cleaning products, cosmetics, personal care products and plastics, according to a new study in GeoHealth, a journal of the American Geophysical Union.

The new research found evidence of exposure to these chemical compounds, called phthalates, in 71 percent of dolphins tested in Sarasota Bay, Florida during 2016 and 2017. Previous studies detected phthalate metabolites in the blubber or skin of a few individual marine mammals, but the new study is the first to document the additives in the urine of wild marine mammals.

Some phthalates have been linked to hormonal, metabolic and reproductive problems in humans, including low sperm count and abnormal development of reproductive organs. The study’s authors do not know what health impacts phthalate compounds may have on dolphins, but the presence of byproducts of the chemicals in the animals’ urine indicates they have remained in the body long enough to process them.

“We focused on urine in dolphins because, in previous studies of humans, that has been the most reliable matrix to indicate short-term exposure.” said Leslie Hart, a public health professor at the College of Charleston and the lead author of the new study.

Studies have linked human exposure to phthalates with use of products containing these additives, such as personal care products and cosmetics, but Hart said the source of dolphin exposure to phthalates is not yet known. Elevated concentrations in dolphin urine of a specific phthalate compound most commonly added to plastics hinted at plastic waste as a possible source of exposure for the dolphins, she said.

“These chemicals can enter marine waters from urban runoff and agricultural or industrial emissions, but we also know that there is a lot of plastic pollution in the environment” said Hart.

Understanding exposure in dolphins gives scientists insight into the contaminants in local waters and what other animals, including humans, are being exposed to, according to the study’s authors.

Gina Ylitalo, an analytical chemist at NOAA’s Northwest Fisheries Science Center who was not involved in the study, said dolphins are good indicators of what is going on in coastal waters.

“Any animals in the near shore environment with similar prey are probably being exposed as well,” she said. “The dolphins are great sentinels of the marine environment.”

Ubiquitous contaminants

Phthalate compounds are added to a wide variety of products to confer flexibility, durability, and lubrication. Some phthalates interfere with body systems designed to receive messages from hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. This can disrupt natural responses to these hormone signals.

Tests for phthalate exposure look for metabolites of the compounds, the products of initial breakdown of the compounds by the liver.

“We are looking for metabolites. These are indicators that the dolphins have been exposed somewhere in their environment and that the body has started to process them,” Hart said.

About 160 dolphins live in Sarasota Bay, a subtropical coastal lagoon tucked between barrier islands and the cities of Sarasota and Bradenton on the southwest coast of Florida. The Chicago Zoological Society’s Sarasota Dolphin Research Program has tracked individual dolphins since 1970, monitoring their health, behavior, and exposure to contaminants. The dolphins are residents of the area year-round, across multiple decades, with individuals living up to 67 years.

In 2016 and 2017, Hart and her colleagues tested the urine of 17 wild dolphins in and around Sarasota Bay for nine phthalates. They found phthalate metabolites in the urine of 71 percent of the dolphins tested.

Hart compared the dolphin data to human data from the CDC’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which includes information about behavior and diet as well as blood and urine samples from a large cross section of the U.S. population. She found concentrations of one type of phthalate metabolite, monoethyl phthalate (MEP), were much lower in dolphins than in the human population surveyed by NHANES, but concentrations of another type of phthalate metabolite, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), were equivalent or higher to the levels found in humans.

“If you look at the primary uses of the parent compounds, MEP’s parent is commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products including shampoos and body wash, whereas MEHP is a metabolite of a compound commonly added to plastic,” Hart said.

Indicator species

Understanding what dolphins are exposed to gives researchers and the public a better idea of what is in the environment.

The study is particularly valuable because of the long-term data available on the Sarasota dolphins’ health and behavior, said Ylitalo. Bottlenose dolphins are good indicators of pollutant exposure in whales and dolphins that can’t be easily sampled.

“We will not be getting urine samples from killer whales in my neck of the woods,” Ylitalo said. “They don’t know what the health effects are yet, but if any group can do it, it will be these type of folks who start teasing it out.”

Documenting exposure was an important first step, Hart said. She wants to expand the sample size to continue investigating the extent and potential health impacts of exposure and start tracking down possible sources. Ultimately, she hopes this research could be used to help curtail the sources of contamination.

“We’ve introduced these chemicals, they are not natural toxins, and we have the ability to reverse it, to clean this up.” Hart said.

 

source

www.sciencedaily.com

Scientists use drone to sample whale breath and snot To study the microbiome of humpback whales

Scientists flew a small drone over the blowhole of a few humpback whales in the US and Canada to collect the microbes living inside their breath. Sampling the community of microbes and bacteria living inside whales, called the microbiome, can help us better understand what makes a healthy whale, and what happens when a whale gets sick.

In the new research, published this week in the journal mSystems, scientists describe 25 species of microbes found in each humpback’s breath they sampled. Though they don’t know how exactly these organisms affect the health of the whales yet, many of the same microbes are often found in other marine mammals, suggesting they play a role in keeping the animals healthy. The study is also the latest example of how drones can help scientists in their quest to conserve species: in Hawaii, botanists are also using drones to hunt down rare plants in hard-to-reach places like cliffs.

drone2 (1)

Just like humans, animals have a microcosm of organisms inhabiting their bodies — which help keep them healthy. While we’re just starting to explore the human microbiome and its functions, very little is known about the microbiome of whales, especially inside their breathing organs, where a lot of infections occur. So researchers decided to sample the spray of water and snot coming out of the hole atop the whale heads, which the animals use to breathe at the surface.

Usually, whale breath is collected by approaching the animals — which can be up to 60 feet long, in the case of humpbacks — with a small boat, and then holding 23-foot pole with a collection plate above the blowhole. That’s obviously time-consuming and dangerous — for people and whales. In search for a better method, scientists used a remote-controlled hexacopter equipped with a petri dish. They then flew it a few feet over the blowhole of 26 healthy humpback whales off the coast of Cape Cod in the Atlantic Ocean and Vancouver Island in the Pacific.

dronewhale

The researchers found 25 species of microbes in the breath of all whales, including 20 that were previously found in other marine mammals. That suggests that those organisms are connected to the creatures’ respiratory health, according to the study, although it’s not exactly clear how. But understanding what makes the microbiome of a healthy whale can help us monitor their health, identify dangerous pathogens in the future, and possibly understand how pollutants in the water can affect whales.

That’s key for their conservation. A number of large whales are listed as endangered or critically endangered, including some humpback whale populations off the coast of northwest Africa and Central America.

Sourse: http://www.theverge.com
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