Rare dolphin-whale hybrid spotted near Hawaii

Researchers found the first known hybrid between a rough-toothed dolphin and a melon-headed whale near Kauai, Hawaii.

(CNN)Scientists from the Cascadia Research Collective have discovered a rare dolphin-whale hybrid off the coast of Kauai, Hawaii, according to a report published last week.

The marine mammal monitoring program, funded by the US Navy, first spotted the animal in August 2017. The team tagged various species, including commonly seen rough-toothed dolphins and rarer melon-headed whales.

However, researchers soon noticed that one tagged animal that looked a little odd. Although it had a typical melon-headed whale’s dorsal fin shape and dorsal cape, it was also blotchy in pigmentation and had a sloping forehead, more reminiscent of a rough-toothed dolphin.

A genetic sample soon confirmed their suspicions: it was a hybrid of the two species, the first to ever be found.

rough tooth -2

Rough-toothed dolphins.

The cross-species hybridization may seem bizarre, but is made possible by the fact that melon-headed whales aren’t actually whales. They belong to the Delphinidae family, otherwise known as oceanic dolphins, which also includes orcas and two species of pilot whales.

It also isn’t the first discovery of hybridization in the family — there have also been cases of bottlenose dolphin/false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) hybrids, known as Wolphins, and common/bottlenose dolphin hybrids.

This is the first confirmed hybrid between rough-toothed dolphins and melon-headed whales. However, though it’s an exciting discovery, researchers point out it is not, as commonly thought, a new species.

“While hybridization can at times lead to new species, most of the time this does not happen,” Cascadia researcher Robin Baird told CNN, pointing that there was only a single hybrid found this time.

Some hybrid animals, such as the mule — a hybrid of a male donkey and female horse — are mostly sterile and therefore cannot propagate easily.

melon-headed whale-3

Melon-headed whales.

The dolphin-whale hybridization is especially surprising in this region, as a sighting of melon-headed whales had never before been confirmed near the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) navy base.

The hybrid was only traveling with one companion — a melon-headed whale. This, too was unusual, given that melon-headed whales typically travel in groups of 200-300. The solitary pair were “found associating with rough-toothed dolphins,” the report read.

The odd pair and their closeness to the other dolphins have led the researchers to speculate that the accompanying melon-headed whale is the hybrid’s mother.

The research team will return to Kauai next week, hoping to confirm their theory.

“If we were lucky enough to find the pair again, we would try to get a biopsy sample of the accompanying melon-headed whale, to see whether it might be the mother of the hybrid, as well as get underwater images of the hybrid to better assess morphological differences from the parent species,” said Baird.

The US Navy is required to monitor these species as part of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act.

They do so through the Cascadia Research Collective, which conducts photo identification, genetic analyzes, and acoustic monitoring to determine the abundance of odontocetes, also known as toothed whales.

source: https://edition.cnn.com/2018/07/30/us/dolphin-whale-hybrid-intl/index.html

 

 

Punishment- For all animal trainers

Operant conditioning- Punishment

 

Many trainers believe punishment is the answer!!

Negative effect of punishment, weather is for dolphins, sea lions, dogs or human.

 

The side effects of punishment 

Punishment differs from negative reinforcement in that it aims to decrease the likelihood of the response occurring. Punishment is the introduction of an unpleasant stimuli such as a hit or yell, whereas negative reinforcement is taking away the unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of the response occurring.

Potential punishers are any consequences which might lead to a decrease in the response. Some consequences may be punishing for some people, but not others.

Side-effects of punishment include aggression, frustration, avoidance learning, escape learning and learned helplessness. The punishment may not decrease the behaviour at all but teach the child to be aggressive or avoid the punishes. Sometimes the punishment ends up being positive reinforcement or only serves to satisfy the frustration of the punisher.

Effective punishment should address the subject’s actions and not the subject’s character. It should be related to the undesirable behaviour and it should consist of penalties or response cost (the removal of a reinforcer) rather than psychological or physical pain.

 

 

Alison.com

The shocking truth about Charles Darwin

Why does Charles Darwin eclipse Alfred Russel Wallace?

 

_66026683_017009383-1

He jointly came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection, corresponded with the great and good of society, and was given the highest honour possible from a British monarch.

 

His correspondents included David Lloyd George, William Gladstone, Rudyard Kipling, George Bernard Shaw and Arthur Conan Doyle.

And on his death 100 years ago, obituaries were effusive in their praise, calling him the last of the great Victorians.

You would be forgiven for the name Charles Darwin popping into your head – but you would be wrong.

The theory of evolution by natural selection was published jointly between Darwin and Monmouthshire-born Alfred Russel Wallace, whose interest in natural history developed when he moved to Neath and worked as a land surveyor with his brother.

But while today Darwin is a household name synonymous with the theory, Wallace struggles to gain anywhere near the recognition of his friend.

This is illustrated by an appeal this year to raise funds for a life-sized bronze statue to honour Wallace – it only reached half of its £50,000 target.

 

Wallace expert Dr George Beccaloni, who is a curator at the Natural History Museum where the statue would stand, said: “We have enough money to pay for a torso and arms at the moment.

“There are hundreds of Darwin statues and busts but there’s not even a bust of Wallace.

“There’s a side-profile roundel on the wall at Westminster Abbey – not far from Darwin’s grave. There’s not a lot else.”

Interestingly, Wallace was not overlooked during his lifetime and was awarded the Order of Merit, the highest honour that could be given by the British monarch to a civilian.

His correspondents included some of the most significant politicians in recent British history, and celebrated authors and poets.

“He was extremely famous and possibly the most famous scientist and one of the most famous people in the world when he died (in 1913),” said Dr Beccaloni.

‘Grabbed the imagination’

“There were very long, glowing obituaries in all the world’s papers from Bombay to Boston saying he was the last of the great Victorians.

“One of the papers said only a great ruler would have had the sort of level of obituary recognition as Wallace.”

He said Darwin was more famous but died many years before Wallace leaving Wallace to go on and become “the most famous living biologist in Britain”.

So, where did it go wrong for Wallace’s reputation?

 

Prof Jim Costa, director of a biological research station in North Carolina, USA and an expert on both men, says part of the problem appears to be that Wallace failed to promote his role in formulating the theory as effectively as Darwin.

While they had jointly published the theory of evolution by natural selection in a paper in August 1858, it was Darwin’s On the Origin of Species the very next year that truly grabbed the public’s imagination.

Even one of Wallace’s own books appeared to pass on the credit for the discovery. It was called ‘Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of Its Applications’!

Prof Costa said another factor was what became known as the “eclipse of Darwinism”, when natural selection fell out of favour in the late 19th Century.

By the time it was revived in the 1930s, neither man was around and the world was a very different place.

“I think when this idea was resurrected in 1930 there was a new generation and they very much had Darwin on their minds,” said Prof Costa.

 

“Wallace I think had a role in this – his book ‘Darwinism’ for example. He tended to downplay his role in public forums and that just didn’t serve him well.

“When it [natural selection] was resurrected, it was always associated with Darwin.”

He said when evolutionary biology really took off in the 1940s, the history of the discovery had been largely forgotten.

A Darwin “industry” developed and, said Prof Costa, it viewed Darwin as the “great visionary”.

While little has changed since in terms of public acclaim, there are signs that Wallace’s work is gaining more recognition in certain circles.

A series of events are being held around the world to commemorate the centenary of Wallace’s death this year under the Wallace100 banner.

Renewed efforts

These include an exhibition in Swansea, a lecture in Berlin and a two-day conference in Malaysia.

Comedian Bill Bailey recently unveiled a restored portrait of Wallace at the Natural History Museum and has also filmed a two-part documentary for the BBC about Wallace.

Thousands of Wallace’s letters have been put online for the first time, including correspondence with Darwin about evolution by natural selection.

There is even hope for the statue with renewed efforts being made to raise the rest of the money by August.

But gaining the same level of acclaim as Darwin is another matter.

“I think that in the popular imagination, it would be very, very difficult. It’s indelibly Darwin and monkeys,” said Prof Costa.

“I don’t think there’s much we can do about that but I do think he will emerge from relative eclipse by Darwin, certainly in the broad academic world and the world of naturalists.

“He contributed so much.”

 

 

 

Animal Training- Behaviour Stages

Based on positive reinforcement, operant conditioning

Many trainers when they are training a new behaviour they believe that once the basics steps of a behaviour is thought the it’s completed or finished. This is contradictory as we clearly know that is more difficult to keep a behaviour continuously on shape than training it for first time.

When training animals for public interaction your behaviour must be at criteria in order to develop a quality service.

If you were a guest and you were having a unique experience such as an interaction with these animals. Which of these images you would you like to take with you?

This is the reason why in this case trainers and video department must work together and synchronised, so others could take with them the best memory ever!!!

 

 

Via dolphin mentoring

After so many years training dolphins, some time ago during a training session, I stood up and looked around thought if only I could create a program to make a session easier, for the animals and for the trainers.

I thought that showing people how I used Operant Condition (positive reinforcement) would be a good opportunity to create a program much easier to understand and less complicated for all trainers. This would also ensure fair treatment of the animals by less experienced trainers, who could then use positive training techniques to achieve quicker results.

I realised that the process of learning so many techniques could be daunting for students, but with my help in explaining how they can build, using small steps at time, they will be successful. Many students don’t make it, due lack of patience, frustration, uncertainty, but with my mentoring program they will be more relaxed and be able to glide through my trainer’s training process.

As we already know the fittest, strongest animal is the one leading!!

A new trainer’s program would not be complete without noting the importance of them having a healthy life style to ensure they were fit enough to keep up with their demanding career.

My personal trainer has linked with Via Dolphin and has devised dietary information to assist trainers in getting all the nutrients they need, workout advise for optimum results, so they can keep healthy and strong and even suggested supplements that can assist with a healthy balanced diet.

We have launched a Trainers Fitness program to ease a trainers hectic daily life style.

 

For more information visit our FaceBook page @

https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

Soy Protein Powder

Nutritional values of soy

Soybeans are low in saturated fat, high in protein calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine and vitamin C, also a good source of fibre. There are many products made of soybeans soy such as soy milk and tofu. Young, green soybeans can be eaten out as an appetiser also be used in salads, stir-fries, and soups. It is even used in cosmetic products because there are claims that it reduces the appearance of ageing.

Isolated soy powder, as the name suggests, isolates the highest part of the soy protein, providing a higher quality source of protein. The soy powder which I use is 90% protein, being one of the highest sources of protein available. My personal trainer has used soy isolate for over twenty years and believes that it does indeed aid the skin and hair, improving the fight against the signs of ageing.

I am sharing my preference for this product because it has helped me and others, when working in busy environments, where sitting down to eat a meal, is difficult. I mix this soy for my protein source and add either porridge oats or a maltodextrin powder for my carbohydrate source. The resulting drink is easy to drink on the go, when you are busy, it gives you the right amount of protein and carbohydrates, whilst also being low calorie and helping you keep your waist small.

I use around 25g each of both soy and maltodextrin but the amount you can use will depend on your size and work-load etc. I will be advising in more detail through my other pages, what suitable diets for trainers and those with busy jobs.

I buy this Soy Isolate 90% product from My protein through Amazon.

Product Overview

Our Soy Protein Isolate delivers an impressive 27g of protein per serving, and contains 90% protein content.

What is Soy Protein Isolate?

Soy protein isolate is protein that’s sourced directly from soybeans – this means that it’s completely free from animal products, unlike whey protein or casein, making it a great choice for vegetarians, vegans, and anyone with lactose intolerance.

  • Key Benefits
    • 27g of protein per serving
    • Suitable for vegetarians and vegans
    • Lactose-free and ingredients containing gluten
    • Zero fat and zero sugar
    • Available in four indulgent flavours
  • Why Choose?
  1. Protein contributes to the growth and maintenance of muscle mass.
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, milk and egg.

Chocolate Smooth Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (89%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Cocoa Powder, Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Strawberry Cream Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Colour (Beetroot Red), Sweetener (Sucrose)

Unflavoured: Soy Protein Isolate (100%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin)

Vanilla Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Matcha: Soy Protein Isolate (93%), Artificial Flavouring (Sweeteners (Sucrose), Artificial Flavouring Substances), Green Tea Extract (4%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ¼ scoops (30g)

Servings Per Container – 33 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1642 kJ/387 kcal 493 kJ/116 kcal 6%
Fat 0.5 g 0.2 g 0%
  of which saturates 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 5 g 1.5 g 1%
  of which sugars 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Protein 90 g 27 g 54%
Salt 3.8 g 1.1 g 18%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour, the nutritional values may vary.

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-Unflavoured-Protein-Supplement/dp/B00L7X970S/ref=sr_1_12?keywords=my+protein+soy+powder&qid=1556455422&s=gateway&sr=8-12

 

 

 

Maltodextrin

In a healthy well-balanced diet, we need carbohydrates to give us energy, to help recover from normal muscle function, as well as giving us an energy boost before any hard work or work-out. To consume carbs, we may have to prepare and cook meals and we may not have as trainers, enough time to cook or even eat these meals throughout our busty days. I use Maltodextrin mixed with Soy Isolate Powder which then creates a quick cost-effective easy meal to have on the go. These drinks have given me a very good way of controlling my calorie intake when needing to lose weight, energy and recovery when working out

I use Maltodextrin 100% from My protein which I purchase through Amazon.

Product Overview

  • Key Benefits
    • Great source of energy
    • Fuel for your workout
    • Recovery post-workout
    • Vegan, vegetarian, gluten-free
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, soy, milk and egg.

Unflavoured: Maltodextrin (100%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ½ large scoops (50g)

Servings Per Container – 20 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1700 kJ/400 kcal 850 kJ/200 kcal 10%
Fat 0 g 0 g 0%
  of which saturates 0 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 100 g 50 g 19%
  of which sugars  0g 0 g 0%
Protein 0 g 0 g 0%
Salt <0.01 g <0.01 g 0%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour the nutritional values may vary.

Follow the link below

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-MYP16-Maltodextrin-Supplement/dp/B00BSOC5NM/ref=sr_1_5?crid=3FZASUBVQ0F6B&keywords=myprotein+maltodextrin&qid=1556456067&s=gateway&sprefix=maltodextrin+myprotein%2Caps%2C163&sr=8-5

 

If you have a busy job and need help with how to eat healthily, advice on what to eat to lose weight, to stay energised and the best time to eat….read on!

DSCF0930

Have you ever wondered how fit a Dolphin Trainer needs to be and how a healthy lifestyle can help them?

Many trainers struggle because of lack a of time, even for any social life

Here you can learn about healthy diets that they can fit into their busy day, what supplements they can add to their diets and smart ways to fit in meals, whilst at work with little breaks.

Naturally, these diets and fitness tips can be used by anyone who has a busy lifestyle or a demanding job that does not allow you to have many breaks to eat meals.

As a mentor, using my years of experience to guide and teach new trainers, one of the most difficult and challenging problems trainers have is finding time to eat. I remember I was always very busy and being naturally hyperactive, I always had to eat very quickly. Other trainers used to regularly ask how I could have so much energy and asked if I took any vitamin supplements.

I did take a multi-vitamin supplement and also high protein powders and oats in a quick drink. I would prepare drinks the night before and carry them to work.

Here I can expand on the types of food that are both convenient and high in protein, energy and healthy.

I have further developed this eating regime with the help of my personal trainer and nutritional advisor, who helped me some years ago to create a healthy meal and

DSCF0936

training program, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. I always trained at a gym and ate healthy foods, but he was able to help me increase my fitness level whilst burning fat, with a healthy diet, not just reverting to traditional diets for fat lost.

What you will find out is;

  1. The most effective way to lose fat.
  2. What to eat and how to prepare simple drinks and meals to eat on the go..
  3. When to eat to maximise weight loss and recovery..
  4. Diets that are creative and calorie controlled.
  5. Workouts that are easy to fit into your busy lifestyles..
  6. The potential for bespoke advise tailored to your specific requirements.

 

As I mentioned my personal trainer has helped me develop these simple tips, but if you are interested in finding out more or if you need advice more tailored to you specifically, you can follow the link below.

 

Just contact us @  viadolphin@hotmail.co.uk

 

If you are ready to try our Drinks on the Go, check Animal Trainer healthy program support on our shopping page!!

 

If you would like to take a look at our Facebook mentoring page, with just a click you will be there!!

Here: https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

 

 

A Trainers love lasts forever

When 10 years has passed and you see with your own eyes, the proof of a unique bond between an animal and a human.

I was so flabbergasted it took my breath away and brought tears to my eyes.

Misty… the closest animal to me and the smarted dolphin I have ever trained, proved to me once again, what a special bond we had after 10 years without interacting with each other.

When I remember how we found her its breaks my heart!

She was just a baby, floating lifeless, like a piece of drift-wood in the open ocean, alone and close to dying, when we came to her rescue.

It was April the 4th 2005, she was a very sick, cast away from her family, very dehydrated body, with severe infections plus around six ulcers in her stomach, which I later observed through our endoscope camera.

After nursing her back to health, she soon became the most intelligent and responsive animal and after sleeping many nights by her side on the trainer’s platform, we developed a bond that was evident in her reaction to me, whenever we were together.

Fast forward now to two weeks ago, on a visit to see all my friends at Dolphin Cove Jamaica Ocho Rios, my one thought was how was Misty. She was 16 years old whilst I was there, so I wanted to see my young friend!  I was asked if I wanted to help feed her and naturally, with such a kind offer from the trainers who by now had heard of our history, I could not miss the chance to see Misty.

I gave her a tactile signal, which I used to give her always when we used to play, only she and I knew about it, it was our little secret… I was speechless when she responded positive and with fluency to my signal after 10 years…my heart was bursting with happiness, after she showed me that she remembered my unique signal and touch. I spent a short while with her and could tell by other unique signals and touches that she remembered each one perfectly.

It was an amazing experience and confirms my belief that not only are these beautiful animals so intelligent, but that a special bond can exist between a trainer with an honest kind heart, putting their love into how they treat their animal and an animal respecting that treatment. Often, Misty offered to perform without constant positive reinforcement, because she trusted me to reward fully at the end of the program, this was also somewhat unique to Misty and I, but it also demonstrates what can happen, if you treat the animals with love and respect.

A big thank you to you guys at Ocho Rios for making this experience possible, it will remain in my heart, as will Misty, forever.