CARBO-PROTEIN DRINK!!!

The world is changing and our working environment too!

We at Via dolphin have utilised a way of improving our time management whilst taking a healthy drink, which is great for animal trainers and all active people working on your fast pace environment.

This drink gives you carbs for energy and high-quality protein for tissue repair, but the best thing is that it does can be prepared in minutes and can be taken to any place of work and can be consumed as easy as having a drink of water!

Carbohydrate: For your daily fuel

Protein: For your muscle and tissue repair

When and How to!!

  • On the way to work
  • You can take it while in meeting
  • Whilst working without a breaktime
  • in your shortest break

 

How to prepare your CARBO-PROTEIN DRINK!!

The night before your working day prepare in a regular bottle or in a shaker

Step 1.

Measure out using a kitchen scale or measuring scoop (provided in the powders), which also ensures you can manage your calorie in-take which in turn helps you to lose weight or gain muscle.

Step 2:

If you just prefer use any regular bottle use a whisk on a bowl for easier mixing of the two powders, you don’t need to waste time using a blender and less washing up.

Step 3.

If you are using a shaker, just put the measured Carbo Powder and Protein Powder in…and add water either straight away, or to keep cool in the sun, add water when you want to drink the drink, then just shake and drink!

 

You can find the Carbo Powder and Protein Powder on our shopping page.

https://viadolphin.com/shopping/

 

 

Soy Protein Powder

Nutritional values of soy

Soybeans are low in saturated fat, high in protein calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine and vitamin C, also a good source of fibre. There are many products made of soybeans soy such as soy milk and tofu. Young, green soybeans can be eaten out as an appetiser also be used in salads, stir-fries, and soups. It is even used in cosmetic products because there are claims that it reduces the appearance of ageing.

Isolated soy powder, as the name suggests, isolates the highest part of the soy protein, providing a higher quality source of protein. The soy powder which I use is 90% protein, being one of the highest sources of protein available. My personal trainer has used soy isolate for over twenty years and believes that it does indeed aid the skin and hair, improving the fight against the signs of ageing.

I am sharing my preference for this product because it has helped me and others, when working in busy environments, where sitting down to eat a meal, is difficult. I mix this soy for my protein source and add either porridge oats or a maltodextrin powder for my carbohydrate source. The resulting drink is easy to drink on the go, when you are busy, it gives you the right amount of protein and carbohydrates, whilst also being low calorie and helping you keep your waist small.

I use around 25g each of both soy and maltodextrin but the amount you can use will depend on your size and work-load etc. I will be advising in more detail through my other pages, what suitable diets for trainers and those with busy jobs.

I buy this Soy Isolate 90% product from My protein through Amazon.

Product Overview

Our Soy Protein Isolate delivers an impressive 27g of protein per serving, and contains 90% protein content.

What is Soy Protein Isolate?

Soy protein isolate is protein that’s sourced directly from soybeans – this means that it’s completely free from animal products, unlike whey protein or casein, making it a great choice for vegetarians, vegans, and anyone with lactose intolerance.

  • Key Benefits
    • 27g of protein per serving
    • Suitable for vegetarians and vegans
    • Lactose-free and ingredients containing gluten
    • Zero fat and zero sugar
    • Available in four indulgent flavours
  • Why Choose?
  1. Protein contributes to the growth and maintenance of muscle mass.
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, milk and egg.

Chocolate Smooth Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (89%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Cocoa Powder, Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Strawberry Cream Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Colour (Beetroot Red), Sweetener (Sucrose)

Unflavoured: Soy Protein Isolate (100%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin)

Vanilla Flavour: Soy Protein Isolate (95%), Emulsifier (Soy Lecithin), Flavouring, Sweetener (Sucrose)

Matcha: Soy Protein Isolate (93%), Artificial Flavouring (Sweeteners (Sucrose), Artificial Flavouring Substances), Green Tea Extract (4%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ¼ scoops (30g)

Servings Per Container – 33 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1642 kJ/387 kcal 493 kJ/116 kcal 6%
Fat 0.5 g 0.2 g 0%
  of which saturates 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 5 g 1.5 g 1%
  of which sugars 0.1 g 0 g 0%
Protein 90 g 27 g 54%
Salt 3.8 g 1.1 g 18%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour, the nutritional values may vary.

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-Unflavoured-Protein-Supplement/dp/B00L7X970S/ref=sr_1_12?keywords=my+protein+soy+powder&qid=1556455422&s=gateway&sr=8-12

 

 

 

Maltodextrin

In a healthy well-balanced diet, we need carbohydrates to give us energy, to help recover from normal muscle function, as well as giving us an energy boost before any hard work or work-out. To consume carbs, we may have to prepare and cook meals and we may not have as trainers, enough time to cook or even eat these meals throughout our busty days. I use Maltodextrin mixed with Soy Isolate Powder which then creates a quick cost-effective easy meal to have on the go. These drinks have given me a very good way of controlling my calorie intake when needing to lose weight, energy and recovery when working out

I use Maltodextrin 100% from My protein which I purchase through Amazon.

Product Overview

  • Key Benefits
    • Great source of energy
    • Fuel for your workout
    • Recovery post-workout
    • Vegan, vegetarian, gluten-free
  • Ingredients

For allergens, see ingredients in bold. May also contain gluten, soy, milk and egg.

Unflavoured: Maltodextrin (100%)

  • Nutritional Information

Serving Size – 1 ½ large scoops (50g)

Servings Per Container – 20 (1kg)

Nutritional Information

  Per 100g Per Serving *RI
Energy 1700 kJ/400 kcal 850 kJ/200 kcal 10%
Fat 0 g 0 g 0%
  of which saturates 0 g 0 g 0%
Carbohydrates 100 g 50 g 19%
  of which sugars  0g 0 g 0%
Protein 0 g 0 g 0%
Salt <0.01 g <0.01 g 0%

 

* Reference intake of an average adult (8400 kJ/2000 kcal)

The nutritional information is based on the Unflavoured version, when choosing an alternative flavour the nutritional values may vary.

Follow the link below

https://www.amazon.co.uk/MY-PROTEIN-MYP16-Maltodextrin-Supplement/dp/B00BSOC5NM/ref=sr_1_5?crid=3FZASUBVQ0F6B&keywords=myprotein+maltodextrin&qid=1556456067&s=gateway&sprefix=maltodextrin+myprotein%2Caps%2C163&sr=8-5

 

HEALTH ADVICE For Trainers and active people….

As trainers we spend all day long caring for you animals, enriching their environment, making sure they are happy, mentally and physically healthy.

How about you?

Do not forget for you to be able to care about others you should be strong as well, so you can provide long lasting, accurate and strong help, because if you are not able to think clearly to help others, you cannot help.

Why you think when you are in a vulnerable position, such travelling on a plane, the crew especially emphasise that you must put the oxygen mask on yourself first to be able to help others and that include your own child.

Trainers and active people – you need nutritional support, to keep you strong and fit for your highly demanding daily work!

If you want to be successful, active and full of energy, here is one of the ways I can support you, I use a multi vitamin and mineral supplement daily that I feel can aid in keeping you focused, strong and better cope our hyperactive life styles!!

The body needs certain nutrients that enhance its performance, repair, maintain good health and help keep a healthy immune system. Getting a balance of all these nutrients is difficult and would also involve consuming large quantities of food. Taking supplements has for some time, been the easy way to get these nutrients and there are a variety of brands and combinations of vitamins or minerals that all claim amazing results,

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I cannot comment on any other brands or combinations, but I can pass on my experience (and that of my personal trainer) on the one supplement that we have both taken for a number of years. The main requirement is to get a balance of multi-vitamin/minerals in a cost effective and easy to take product. The product that I suggest is “Animal Pak” which I purchase through Amazon.

I take one pack a day which I take with breakfast and is then part of a balanced daily diet. My personal trainer takes two packs day and has done so for many years, formally being a competitive bodybuilder some years ago. We both feel that our immune system and general health has greatly improved whilst taking these supplements and have tried periods without them, when we observed less resistance to catching colds etc. and even slower recovery time from training sessions.

I would recommend these to anyone with a demanding job that wants to help stay healthy and supplement their diet with a good multi-vitamin/mineral. This product also goes beyond just vitamins and minerals and includes the body’s natural building blocks for repairing tissue such as muscle, amino acids as well as performance components such as Ginseng and digestive aids.

 

Here is the nutritional breakdown

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Follow the link:

https://www.amazon.com/dp/B000GOT54C?aaxitk=CaYN4NX.rlRwN96n2Je.1A&pd_rd_i=B000GOT54C&pf_rd_p=3fade48a-e699-4c96-bf08-bb772ac0e242&hsa_cr_id=1037371920701&sb-ci-n=productDescription&sb-ci-v=Animal%2BPak%2BMultivitamin%2B-%2BSports%2BNutrition%2BVitamins%2Bwith%2BAmino%2BAcids%2C%2BAntioxidants%2C%2BDigestive%2BEnzymes%2C%2BPerformance%2BComplex%2B-%2Bfor%2BAthletes%2Band%2BBodybuilders%2B-%2BImmune%2BSupport%2Band%2BRecovery%2B-%2B44%2BPaks&th=1
44 Packs
Serving Size 2 Packets
Servings Per Container22
Amount Per Serving %DV
Calories 40
Total Carbohydrates 4 g <2%*
Dietary Fiber 2 g 8%*
protein 6 g 12%*
Vitamin A (As Carotenoids [Β-Carotene, Α-Carotene], Acetate) 9,900 IU 198%
Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Palmitate) 1 g 1,667%
Vitamin D(as Cholecalciferol) 680 IU 170%
Vitamin E (as d-α, d-β, d-γ, d-Δ tocopherols & tocotrienols) 300 IU 1,000%
Thiamin (as mononitrate) 76 mg 5,067%
Riboflavin 76 mg 4,471%
Niacin (as niacinamide) 82 mg 410%
Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine AKG, pyridoxine HCl) 180 mg 9,000%
Folic Acid 400 mcg 100%
Vitamin B12 (methylcobalamin, cyanocobalamin) 11 mcg 185%
Biotin 300 mcg 100%
Pantothenic Acid 76 mg 760%
Calcium 2 g 200%
Phosphorus 1,330 mg 133%
Iodine (from kelp) 150 mcg 100%
Magnesium (as oxide) 400 mg 100%
Zinc (as oxide) 30 mg 200%
Selenium (as sodium selenite) 50 mcg 71%
Copper (as sulfate) 600 mcg 30%
Manganese (as sulfate) 5 mg 250%
Chromium (as chloride) 60 mcg 50%
Potassium (as sulfate) 200 mg 6%
Amino Acid Complex
Alanine 279 mg **
Arginine 1,213 mg **
Aspartic Acid 498 mg **
Cystine 110 mg **
Glutamic Acid 653 mg **
Glutamine 174 mg **
Glycine 180 mg **
Histidine 92 mg **
Isoleucine (BCAA/EAA) 284 mg **
Leucine (BCAA/EAA) 509 mg **
Lysine (EAA) 418 mg **
Methionine (EAA) 125 mg **
Phenylalanine (EAA) 192 mg **
Proline 203 mg **
Serine 250 mg **
Threonine (EAA) 283 mg **
Tryptophan (EAA) 81 mg **
Tyrosine 164 mg **
Valine (BCAA/EAA) 289 mg **
Performance Complex
Uni-Liver™ 4,080 mg **
Carnitine 25 mg **
Choline 250 mg **
Eleuthero (root) 1,750 mg **
Hawthorne (berry) 250 mg **
Inositol 125 mg **
Milk Thistle (seed) 500 mg **
Oriental Ginseng (root) 250 mg **
Para-Aminobenzoic Acid 400 mg **
Pyridoxine α−Ketoglutarate 200 mg **
Antioxidant Complex
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) 100 mg **
Citrus Bioflavonoids (peel) 1,000 mg **
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) 5 mg **
Grapeseed Extract 50 mg **
Lutein 1 mg **
Lycopene 1 mg **
Pine Bark Extract 200 mg **
Digestive Enzyme Complex
Bromelain 100 mg **
Inulin 250 mg **
Lipase 10 mg **
Pancreatin 700 mg **
Papain 64 mg **
VegPeptase 2000™ 64 mg **
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
** Daily Value (DV) not established.
Other Ingredients:
Dicalcium Phosphate, whey protein concentrate (milk), glucose polymers, microcrystalline cellulose, arginine α-ketoglutarate, dessicated Argentine liver (bovine), stearic acid, magnesium stearate, choline bitartrate, calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, d-calcium pantothenate, lecithin (soy), carnitine fumarate, calcium citrate, alfalfa, rose hips, rice bran, parsley, burdock, pharmaceutical glaze.
Made in a GMP facility on equipment that processes milk, soy, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat.
INGREDIENT NOTES: VegPeptase 2000™ is an acid stable protease enzyme blend derived from the fermentation of non-GMO, nature-identical strains of Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis

Directions For Animal Pak: Take 1 to 2 packs with breakfast or any other meal, with plenty of water. For those who compete or are training with higher intensity, two packs is suggested.

 

Warnings: Long term intake of this amount of vitamin B6 may lead to mild tingling and numbness. This amount of calcium and phosphorous may cause mild upset stomach in sensitive individuals. Long term intake of this amount of zinc may lead to anemia. Don’t exceed two packs daily. Those who are pregnant, nursing or taking medication are advised to consult a physician before use. This product not to be used as a substitute for a varied diet. Keep out of reach of children. Store in a cool, dry place.

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

 

If you have any question, do not hesitate to contact us @

viadolphin@hotmail.co.uk

Or check our shopping page: https://viadolphin.com/shopping/

 

 

 

If you have a busy job and need help with how to eat healthily, advice on what to eat to lose weight, to stay energised and the best time to eat….read on!

DSCF0930

Have you ever wondered how fit a Dolphin Trainer needs to be and how a healthy lifestyle can help them?

Many trainers struggle because of lack a of time, even for any social life

Here you can learn about healthy diets that they can fit into their busy day, what supplements they can add to their diets and smart ways to fit in meals, whilst at work with little breaks.

Naturally, these diets and fitness tips can be used by anyone who has a busy lifestyle or a demanding job that does not allow you to have many breaks to eat meals.

As a mentor, using my years of experience to guide and teach new trainers, one of the most difficult and challenging problems trainers have is finding time to eat. I remember I was always very busy and being naturally hyperactive, I always had to eat very quickly. Other trainers used to regularly ask how I could have so much energy and asked if I took any vitamin supplements.

I did take a multi-vitamin supplement and also high protein powders and oats in a quick drink. I would prepare drinks the night before and carry them to work.

Here I can expand on the types of food that are both convenient and high in protein, energy and healthy.

I have further developed this eating regime with the help of my personal trainer and nutritional advisor, who helped me some years ago to create a healthy meal and

DSCF0936

training program, supplemented with vitamins and minerals. I always trained at a gym and ate healthy foods, but he was able to help me increase my fitness level whilst burning fat, with a healthy diet, not just reverting to traditional diets for fat lost.

What you will find out is;

  1. The most effective way to lose fat.
  2. What to eat and how to prepare simple drinks and meals to eat on the go..
  3. When to eat to maximise weight loss and recovery..
  4. Diets that are creative and calorie controlled.
  5. Workouts that are easy to fit into your busy lifestyles..
  6. The potential for bespoke advise tailored to your specific requirements.

 

As I mentioned my personal trainer has helped me develop these simple tips, but if you are interested in finding out more or if you need advice more tailored to you specifically, you can follow the link below.

 

Just contact us @  viadolphin@hotmail.co.uk

 

If you are ready to try our Drinks on the Go, check Animal Trainer healthy program support on our shopping page!!

 

If you would like to take a look at our Facebook mentoring page, with just a click you will be there!!

Here: https://www.facebook.com/viadolphinmentoring/?modal=admin_todo_tour

 

 

 

 

Scientists Record Conversations of Mysterious Dolphin

The rare Araguaian river dolphin is a mysterious creature native to Brazil which researchers have long thought to be solitary. Because of this assumption, it was believed that the animals would not be capable of complex communication, given that their social structure does not require it.

But now scientists from the University of Vermont have discovered that the dolphins do interact with one another and can make hundreds of different sounds for the purposes of communication, according to a study published in the journal PeerJ.

 

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“We found that they do interact socially and are making more sounds than previously thought,” Laura May Collado, a biologist at the University of Vermont, said in a statement. “Their vocal repertoire is very diverse.”

Little is known about the Araguaian dolphins, also known as botos, because they are hard to find—as well as being difficult to approach—thus studies about them are limited. They only live in the waters of the Araguaia and Tocatins rivers and their numbers likely do not exceed more than one and a half thousand in total.

Fortunately, the research team was able to find a fish market in the town of Mocajuba where the dolphins often visit because people give them food.

Here, the team used underwater cameras and microphones to record the sounds and interactions between the dolphins at the market. In addition, they also took some DNA samples from the animals.

Gallery: The Most Fascinating Facts About Dolphins (Redbook)

Overall, they captured around 20 hours of recordings, identifying 237 different types of sounds. But even with nearly an entire day of material, the team speculate that the dolphins can produce more sounds than they recorded. Many of the sounds were short, two-part calls, which baby dolphins made when approaching their mothers.

“It’s exciting; marine dolphins like the bottlenose use signature whistles for contact, and here we have a different sound used by river dolphins for the same purpose,” Collado said.

amazr

The scientists also recorded the dolphins making longer calls and whistles, but these were not so frequent, and it is currently unclear what their purpose is. In bottlenose dolphin communication, longer whistles are used to boost group cohesion. But the researchers think the botos may use them for the opposite reason—to maintain distance.

The team say that the frequency of the river dolphin calls were somewhere between the low-frequency sounds made by baleen whales to communicate over long distances and the high-frequency calls used by marine dolphins over short distances. Collado suggests that the acoustic characteristics of their calls were likely influenced by the river environment that they live in.

“There are a lot of obstacles like flooded forests and vegetation in their habitat, so this signal could have evolved to avoid echoes from vegetation and improve the communication range of mothers and their calves,” she said.

The Araguaian dolphins were only identified as a distinct species in 2014, differentiating them from their close relatives—the Bolivian river dolphin and the Amazon river dolphin. While the classification of Araguaian botos is still up for debate, Collado notes that calls between the species show significant differences—Ecuadorean Amazon river dolphins are very quiet, for example.

“We need more information on these other species and more populations,” she said. “Why is one population chattier than others and how do these differences shape their social structure?”

Reported by newsweek

A Trainers love lasts forever

When 10 years has passed and you see with your own eyes, the proof of a unique bond between an animal and a human.

I was so flabbergasted it took my breath away and brought tears to my eyes.

Misty… the closest animal to me and the smarted dolphin I have ever trained, proved to me once again, what a special bond we had after 10 years without interacting with each other.

When I remember how we found her its breaks my heart!

She was just a baby, floating lifeless, like a piece of drift-wood in the open ocean, alone and close to dying, when we came to her rescue.

It was April the 4th 2005, she was a very sick, cast away from her family, very dehydrated body, with severe infections plus around six ulcers in her stomach, which I later observed through our endoscope camera.

After nursing her back to health, she soon became the most intelligent and responsive animal and after sleeping many nights by her side on the trainer’s platform, we developed a bond that was evident in her reaction to me, whenever we were together.

Fast forward now to two weeks ago, on a visit to see all my friends at Dolphin Cove Jamaica Ocho Rios, my one thought was how was Misty. She was 16 years old whilst I was there, so I wanted to see my young friend!  I was asked if I wanted to help feed her and naturally, with such a kind offer from the trainers who by now had heard of our history, I could not miss the chance to see Misty.

I gave her a tactile signal, which I used to give her always when we used to play, only she and I knew about it, it was our little secret… I was speechless when she responded positive and with fluency to my signal after 10 years…my heart was bursting with happiness, after she showed me that she remembered my unique signal and touch. I spent a short while with her and could tell by other unique signals and touches that she remembered each one perfectly.

It was an amazing experience and confirms my belief that not only are these beautiful animals so intelligent, but that a special bond can exist between a trainer with an honest kind heart, putting their love into how they treat their animal and an animal respecting that treatment. Often, Misty offered to perform without constant positive reinforcement, because she trusted me to reward fully at the end of the program, this was also somewhat unique to Misty and I, but it also demonstrates what can happen, if you treat the animals with love and respect.

A big thank you to you guys at Ocho Rios for making this experience possible, it will remain in my heart, as will Misty, forever.

 

The fossil of a 43-million-year-old whale with four legs, webbed feet and hooves has been discovered in Peru.

Palaeontologists believe the marine mammal’s four-metre-long (13 ft) body was adapted to swim and walk on land.

With four limbs capable of carrying its weight and a powerful tail, the semi-aquatic whale has been compared to an otter or a beaver.

Researchers believe the discovery could shed light on the evolution of the whale and how it spread.

“This is the most complete specimen ever found for a four-legged whale outside of India and Pakistan,” Dr Olivier Lambert, a scientist at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences and co-author of the study, said.

It was found in marine sediments 1km (0.6 miles) inland from Peru’s Pacific coast, at Playa Media Luna.

The location has piqued researchers’ interest as the first whales are thought to have first evolved in South Asia around 50 million years ago.

As their bodies became better suited to water, they migrated further afield to North Africa and North America, where fossils have been found.

The latest discovery suggests early whales managed to swim there from South America.

“Whales are this iconic example of evolution,” Travis Park, an ancient whale researcher at the Natural History Museum in London, said.

“They went from small hoofed mammals to the blue whale we have today. It’s so interesting to see how they conquered the oceans.”

An international team of palaeontologists from Peru, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and Belgium excavated the fossil in 2011.

They have named it Peregocetus pacificus, meaning “the travelling whale that reached the Pacific”.

BBC News

 

 

New Experience Opportunity

 

Marine Internships – Work With Dolphins in Zanzibar

AdCollect Conservation Data on Dolphins & Other Marine Life. Enquire Today & Discover Tropical.

 

Zanzibar, off the coast of Tanzania, is a beautiful tropical island and tourist hot-spot due to its stunning beaches, turquoise waters and vibrant history. Ticking swimming with dolphins off the bucket list is also why many venture to this exotic paradise. Yet, prominent research shows the harmful effects of mismanaged interactions and this form of tourism on marine mammals. The answer is never simple – considering the local community’s reliance on this income – but, as part of this Marine Eco Tourism Internship abroad you will become part of a positive solution.

Throughout your placement, you’ll help to create responsible ecotourism practices, connecting a passion for nature, conservation and entrepreneurship with high calibre data collection for university-led research studies.

THIS MARINE ECO-TOURISM INTERNSHIP, YOU WILL:

  • Work with tourism operators in the area to determine the impact of current practices on the marine biodiversity in the area and assess the long-term benefit of sustainable ecotourism
  • By boat, collect daily data on dolphins and other marine life, including the significant influence of tourism on their natural behavior
  • Build on local capacity by delivering collaborative workshops that encourage the community of tourism boat drivers to create more sustainable practices
  • Assist in delivering a change to tourism practices in the private sector, developing small enterprises and high-quality programs to ensure the longevity – and conservation – of the ocean’s natural resources
  • Attend monthly meetings with our research partners from the Institute of Marine Sciences (University of Dar es Salaam) to discuss project development, research studies and alignment
  • Live and work on one of the most stunning tropical islands in the world
  • Be immersed in the vibrant and colorful fishing villages of Jambiani and Kizimkazi
  • Be supported throughout by our team of 3 personal mentors, giving you context and tools to use throughout your future career

 

https://www.africanimpact.com

 

Educational-California sea lions

Every four to five years, The Marine Mammal Center sees a surge in the number of California sea lions that are admitted with symptoms of leptospirosis, a bacterial infection that affects the kidneys and can be lethal. If not treated, the bacteria can cause irreversible kidney damage.

The Marine Mammal Center is currently responding to the second largest leptospirosis outbreak on record in California sea lions. Read more about the current outbreak. For media inquiries, please email media@tmmc.org.

Leptospirosis is caused by a spiral-shaped bacteria called Leptospira. Veterinarians can usually identify leptospirosis in a patient even before laboratory tests confirm a diagnosis because of the infection’s distinctive symptoms in California sea lions, which include drinking water and folding the flippers over the abdomen.

Marine mammals generally do not need to drink water because they receive all the hydration they need from food sources. But when they are infected with the Leptospira , their kidneys stop functioning properly and cannot filter toxins or regulate hydration.

Sea lions diagnosed with leptospirosis are treated with antibiotics, fluids and other supportive care, such as gastroprotectants for stomach and intestinal ulcers. Unfortunately, even with treatment, roughly two-thirds of the animals that strand with acute leptospirosis do not survive.

However, research using data and samples collected at The Marine Mammal Center, as well as data collected from sea lions in the wild, indicate that many sea lions infected with Leptospira survive and likely experience mild or no symptoms of the disease, unlike the acute cases seen at our hospital.

Leptospirosis is a major health burden for humans, domestic animals and wildlife worldwide with over 500,000 severe cases in humans every year. Leptospira can cause disease ranging from infection with no symptoms to severe and possibly fatal disease.

The type of Leptospira affecting California sea lions at The Marine Mammal Center is a strain that has also been associated with pigs, skunks and foxes. It’s transmitted via urine, either directly or via contaminated water or soil.

Researchers haven’t definitively determined how transmission occurs within the sea lion population, but they believe it occurs primarily while sea lions are hauled out on land. The bacteria may also survive for short periods in seawater, so transmission may be possible when large groups of sea lions gather in the water.

When a leptospirosis outbreak occurs, our scientists study the disease to learn more about what causes an outbreak and how we can improve treatment for infected animals. Thanks to the Center’s 43 years of stranding records and bank of blood and urine samples, researchers have a unique opportunity to investigate the disease patterns over four decades.

The graph above shows the seasonal nature of these outbreaks, reflected in large numbers of California sea lions stranding and being treated at the Center for clinical signs of kidney failure. © The Marine Mammal Center
For over 10 years, scientists at The Marine Mammal Center have collaborated with researchers at the Lloyd-Smith Laboratory in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UCLA to study the dynamics of this pathogen in the California sea lion population. The Center has been on the forefront of research on leptospirosis in marine mammals and has published a number of scientific papers on the disease dating back to 1985.

Leptospira was first detected in California sea lions in 1970 during a leptospirosis outbreak that occurred along the coast of California, Oregon and Washington. And since the 1980s we have seen yearly, seasonal outbreaks with major outbreak events causing 100 or more sea lion strandings happening every four to five years.

The reasons for these periodic major outbreaks in sea lions is unknown, however our UCLA collaborators believe that a combination of factors may be responsible, such as changes in herd immunity, sea surface temperatures and sea lion migration patterns.

Interestingly, after 30 uninterrupted years of seeing at least a few cases of leptospirosis annually, the disease disappeared from the population in late 2013 only to reappear four years later. Researchers at UCLA believe the disappearance of the disease may be related to the highly anomalous oceanographic conditions that occurred during the same time period. The abnormally warm waters, commonly referred to as “the Blob,” may have caused changes in sea lion behavior and migration patterns as they struggled to find food sources.

Since 2009, the Center’s biologists and veterinary staff have taken blood and urine samples from wild juvenile California sea lions at popular haul-out spots in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay areas. These animals are then tagged and released, and the urine and blood samples help researchers learn more about kidney function and exposure rates among these animals.

This collaborative research project also relies on long-term demographic datasets generated by our partners at the NOAA Fisheries Marine Mammal Laboratory. These biologists monitor and track pups born on the Channel Islands every year. We also work closely with biologists in Oregon and Washington who monitor the sea lions in those areas.

Many different animal species, including humans and dogs, can become infected with Leptospira through contact with contaminated urine, water or soil. The Marine Mammal Center has a number of safety protocols in place to prevent transmission to veterinarians and volunteers working with our sea lion patients.

 

 

Source: https://viadolphin.com/research-information/